The Tunisian Decision Aid Society organized the inaugural conference of the African Federation of Operational Research Societies (AFROS 2018). The AFROS 2018 is the African conference for Operational Research and Management Science (OR/MS) and is a forum for the presentation of recent developments and applications in the field of OR/MS. This Conference aims to disseminate recent models and techniques related to OR/MS through researchers and practitioners from Africa and all over the world. There were 5 rigorous plenary talks by invited speakers as well as contributed talks. A Doctoral Workshop for doctoral students at the early stage of their dissertation research was organized during the conference and included two sessions on developing dissertation proposals and launching academic careers. AFROS 2018 received 184 manuscripts and after a peer review process, by national and international reviewers, 108 were accepted to be presented in the conference program. The conference program features a broad international representation from several countries, including: Algeria, Bahrain, Canada, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Senegal, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, United Arab Emirates and USA. The accepted papers include mainly application research works from very diverse areas related to Operations Research.